The Ministry of Health said six of roughly 10,000 people infected with the mosquito-borne dengue fever have died this year.
Ho Chi Minh City reported three fatalities, followed by Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc and Ca Mau provinces, all in southern Vietnam, which reported one fatality each.
The ministry said the risk of a dengue fever pandemic is very high as the rainy season is currently underway.
Vietnam has been testing a dengue fever vaccine provided by Sanofi Pasteur of the multinational pharmaceutical company Sanofi.
With no vaccine available yet, Vietnam launched a program last year to introduce mosquitoes that carry Wolbachia, a bacteria that has been linked to viral resistance.
A pilot project saw initial success on an island off the coast of Nha Trang in Khanh Hoa Province, a dengue fever hot spot.
Family Health International, a US-based non-governmental organization specializing in public health issues, brought the program to Vietnam after seeing positive results in Australia.
In Vietnam, an average 100,000 dengue fever cases, of which 100 are fatal, are reported each year.
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