Stretching an hour into a year

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La Thuy Diem Hang is sure that this year's Earth Hour will witness record participation in Vietnam.

This week, volunteers and organizers have been busily arranging activities and preparing communities all over the country for the big event.

This Saturday, environmentally-conscious people and businesses all over the world will shut off their  electric lights from 8:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.

The main event in Vietnam is set to take place in the central province of Thua Thien-Hue.

"In 2010, the campaign was held in Ho Chi Minh City mainly by WWF Vietnam," said the 23-year-old graduate from the HCMC University of Science. "This year, many local environmental clubs and organizations have gotten involved."

Hang said that many young first-time participants in last year's event in HCMC have joined this year's campaign to mobilize others. "We have distributed leaflets and encouraged locals from seven neighborhoods in HCMC to join the campaign," she told Thanh Nien Weekly. "Also, 60 cafés in the city have committed to turning off their lights during the event."

As Vietnam faces down its growing energy needs, energy efficiency policies and programs are being looked to as the cheapest and most immediate solution to the nation's power shortcomings.

Making strides

Manufacturing flourished as the nation's economy soared, driving up the country's power demands - and not always in the most efficient way.

In the past ten years, international development agencies have implemented a host of small scale programs to help Vietnam make its grid more efficient.

In 2003, for example, researchers discovered that Vietnam consumed 39,000 British Thermal Units (BTUs) for every dollar of its gross domestic product (GDP). That same year, Japan used about 5,000 BTUs per dollar of GDP.

From 2004-2009 Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) implemented a program to promote the installation of energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in houses and buildings across Vietnam. 

"The program had a major impact, transforming the lighting market in Vietnam, and reducing peak demand by 300 MW," said Peter du Pont, who worked as a consultant to EVN and the World Bank during the implementation of the program. "It also reduced emissions of carbon dioxide, by more than three million tons." 

At the moment, the Asian Development Bank is looking to fund the streamlining of seven heavy manufacturing sites, according to Felix Gooneratne, Asia Director, International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC).

"Investment grade audits conducted at seven sites (five cement and two steel) have identified significant potential for generating electricity from process waste heat that would supplement on-site electricity demand," said Gooneratne. "Investment plans are currently being finalized."

At the same time, the United Nations Development Program has targeted small and medium-sized manufacturers for efficiency projects.

Future energy needs remain a major issue in the country.

Last month, the government raised the costs of electricity roughly fifteen percent. Officials at the Ministry of Industry and Trade said they hoped that higher power prices would make the construction of large power projects more attractive to foreign investors.

In the meantime, Vietnam is looking to develop its own grassroots campaign to curb energy usage.

Beyond the hour

Earth Hour was initiated by the WWF a non-governmental environmental advocate to increase climate change awareness and induce mitigating responses.

The first event was held in Sydney in 2007 and has quickly spread around the globe.

Last year, hundreds of millions of people across the world, in 4,616 cities and 128 countries and territories, turned off their lights during the last weekend in March.

Tran Minh Hien, Vietnam Country Director of the WWF Greater Mekong Program, said that they plan to launch an extensive campaign that will last the whole year.

"The main event night is just a beginning," she said. "Several activities have been launched for individuals, companies and organizations nationwide."

WWF Vietnam has held talks with students from 16 universities and schools about climate change and Earth Hour.

Hien said that the first success of the campaign is that it has attracted more support from governmental agencies, organization and individuals.

In 2010, 20 cities and provinces as well as more than 300 companies and organizations participated in the event.

"This year, up to 30 cities and provinces and more than 4,800 companies and organizations have committed to participating," Hien said.

Facing down energy demands

This January, the Law on Economical and Effective Use of Energy took effect. The law resolution sought to establish limits on the use of energy in homes and businesses-though actual regulations have yet to be established.

In the meantime, Vietnam is facing some very immediate problems in its energy needs.

According to the HCMC Energy Conservation Center (ECC) the city will face a shortfall of two million kWh of electricity every day during the remainder of the dry season"”which ends in May.

Center Director Huynh Kim Tuoc said that the energy shortfall would not be a problem if local consumers became more conscious about their energy usage.

"If 1.8 million households in HCMC turned off their air conditioners for an extra 30 minutes, the city would save 900,000 kWh of electricity a day," he told Tuoi Tre newspaper in an interview last week. "More efficient use of electricity in factories and offices would also solve the energy shortage."

But local campaigners and public awareness campaigns are already taking hold.

Last March, the ECC and the HCMC Women's Association launched a campaign to make 100,000 households energy efficient. As a result, many households have reduced their electricity bills between 10-50 percent during the previous year.

"We built a network of some 1,200 propagandists in all the city's 24 districts," Tuoc said. "Each was assigned to be in charge of around 100 families to offer energy saving consultations and encourage them to use electricity efficiently."

Tuoc added that the ultimate goal is to change the community's awareness in purchasing and using electricity.

"The result was great," he said. "The participants later encouraged others to participate in the program."

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