Visitors look at wreckage of a downed US Air force aircraft on display at the Vietnam Military History Museum in Hanoi on December 19.
Several exhibitions mark the 40th anniversary of Vietnam's repulse of the US's Christmas campaign to bomb Hanoi.
One has opened at the Vietnam Military History Museum in Hanoi with nearly 300 artifacts and photos, many of them displayed for the first time ever.
The artifacts include the engine of a B-52 bomber that was shot down over Ngoc Ha flower village, a piece of another B-52 shot down in Chuom rice field in Soc Son District, and several objects belonging to American pilots.
There is a scale used to weigh children at the Uy No Commune Medical Station which was bombed in the campaign, torn children's clothes, and vessels and other kitchen ware belonging to people who were injured or killed.
Another exhibition is being held at VietArt Center, 42 Yet Kieu Street, with 40 paintings by Truong Sinh, many done during the 12 days of the bombing campaign.
Sinh said he hopes the paintings, reflecting the willingness of Hanoi residents to fight the invaders, would help younger generations learn about an important milestone in the country's history and instill patriotism in them.
In December 1972 US President Richard Nixon ordered an intensive bombing of Hanoi by deploying a large number of B-52 Stratofortress aircraft.
During the 12-day campaign, starting on December 18, the US Air Force and Navy made 729 B-52 sorties and nearly 4,000 tactical aircraft sorties to drop 80,000 tons of bombs on North Vietnam, especially Hanoi and Hai Phong. Half of them were dropped on Hanoi, many hitting densely populated areas.
Hanoi forced down 34 of the B-52s.