The French colonized Vietnam from 1873 to 1954, with Hanoi becoming the capital of French Indochine in 1887. While the old quarter was left intact as a distinctly Vietnamese part of the city, the French reworked much of the rest to create a European-style city.
Hanoi Medical University, now at 1 Ton That Tung Street, is the oldest university in Vietnam. It was founded in 1902 by the French as the Indochina Medical College. File photo
The Hanoi Opera House, located in the heart of the capital, was built by the French colonial administration between 1901 and 1911. Photo: Ngoc Thang
The National Museum of Vietnamese History, located at 1 Pham Ngu Lao Street, Hoan Kiem District, was built in 1910 and redesigned between 1926 and 1932 by the architect Ernest Hébrard. The museum's exhibits highlight Vietnam's prehistory up to the August 1945 Revolution. Photo: Hieu Cong
Long Bien Bridge, originally called Paul Doumer Bridge, is a historic cantilever bridge across the Red River that connects Hanoi's current districts of Hoan Kiem and Long Bien. The bridge was built in 1899-1902 by the architects Daydé & Pillé of Paris, and opened in 1903. Photo credit: Micheal Ruan/Zing
Chu Van An High School was established by French authorities in 1908 as High School of the Protectorate. It is one of the oldest institutions for secondary education in Indochina. File photo.
St. Joseph's Cathedral, built in 1886, serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hanoi for the nearly 4 million Catholics in the country. Photo: caravanviet
St. Joseph's Cathedral. Photo: HADAO